Author Topic: 3rd Generation Otto Langen  (Read 4742 times)

Offline Craig DeShong

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3rd Generation Otto Langen
« on: July 31, 2020, 04:46:56 PM »

This will be a build log for a 3rd generation Otto and Langen atmospheric engine; the design of which Iím currently completing and will soon commence building.  Iím going to take this initial post and give a little information, for those interested, about the Otto and Langen engines in general. There will also be a bit of unabashed, self-promoting for which Iím hoping you all will forgive me.

The production of the Otto and Langen type engines abruptly ended in 1878 when Nicholas Otto introduced his ďsilent engineĒ... which was the modern four cycle engine we know today; however for an engine design that was only manufactured for around a dozen years or so the Otto and Langen atmospheric engine went through tremendous redesign and maturity.  During those dozen years three distinct generations of the Otto & Langen engine were built. 

The 1st generation Otto & Langen, introduced at the Paris exposition in 1867, is the engine with the fluted column that most of us think of when the Otto & Langen engine is mentioned.  It is the engine that is, by far, the most well-known and the most frequently modeled.  It is of historic significance that serial number one, the first commercially successful internal combustion engine to be built is still extant and can be seen by appointment at the Technikum Ė Deutz Museum in Cologne, Germany where it is occasionally run for the spectators.  A video of that engine follows:


Serial number one, in the video, was built as an un-governed engine; however, within a very short time governors were added.  Wayne Grenning has built a magnificent full size replica of one of these governed engines.  Iíve been privileged to see it in operation and it is spectacular.  Below is a video of it and its builder providing information regarding the engine and a view of it in operation.


Finally I give you a video of my 1st generation Otto & Langen model that I took while it was at a show several years ago.  Iíve also had this model on exhibition at the Cabin Fever Expo on several occasions.


Very quickly, the fluted column was abandoned as it added complexity and expense to the engine.  Engines with the basic 1st generation mechanical design, but with a round column are designated 2nd generation engines.  Both the 1st and 2nd generation engines utilize two shafts, a main drive shaft and a spur gear driven secondary shaft to control the valve and rack lift mechanism. Those with a governor control the engine speed by regulating when the exhaust gasses are released from the cylinder, thus preventing the piston from dropping immediately to the bottom of the cylinder which would begin another power cycle.     An example of such an engine is this 2 HP engine, located in Oslo, Norway.


   
So now, we finally get to the object of this build; the 3rd generation Otto & Langen engine.  In 1872, two other inventors; Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach joined the company.  Maybach was tasked with redesigning the Otto & Langen to simplify its construction and lower the manufacturing cost.  The resulting 3rd generation engines were characterized by having only one shaft as opposed the two the 1st and 2nd generation engines possess.

As a side note, Crossley brothers on Manchester, England revised the Maybach design and produced their own version of a 3rd generation Otto & Langen engine.    This Crossley built version does incorporate a stub secondary shaft, but in all other ways it is based upon the Maybach design.   An example of this design is the Crossley Brothers built Otto & Langen engine at the Anson Engine Museum near Manchester England.  A video of that engine follows:



Another example of this 3rd generation engine is the Crossley built Otto & Langen from which I designed and built my Crossley Brothers Otto & Langen Model I show below:


An example of a 3rd generation engine designed by Maybach and built by the German parent firm Gasmotoren-Fabrik Deutz is the following; serial number 2697.  The governor appears to be missing from this engine.  It is currently owned by the Danish Technical Museum in Elsinore Denmark.

I owe a debt of gratitude to a good friend, Bill Hazzard, who has provided me with original drawings of a 3rd generation Otto & Langen and a vast quantity of photos of Otto & Langen engines in general.  This treasure trove of information assisted me in the design of the 3rd generation Otto & Langen this post introduces.  Bill has also designed and built a full size 3rd generation Otto & Langen replica, a video of which I provide below.  His engine runs beautifully as you can see in the following video.

Finally Iíve included a photo that was taken many years ago in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA.  This photo is from the Schleicher Brothers engine works who were distributers, here in the states, for the Deutz built Otto & Langen engines.  I include the photo only to give an indication that the Otto & Langen was built in many different versions and sizes.

Having worked at a major University I suspect Iím still looking for that teachable moment; so thank you for indulging me with this somewhat lengthy narrative.  The build of this model will follow.
« Last Edit: November 09, 2020, 01:12:57 PM by Craig DeShong »
Craig

Online Vixen

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #1 on: July 31, 2020, 05:11:10 PM »
Hi Craig,

Thanks for the short history, telling how these interesting engines evolved with time.

I feel the historical background is an important part of preserving the heritage. If no one records and tells the story, it will be lost to future generations.

When do the chips start flying?

Mike
It is the journey that matters, not the destination

Offline awake

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #2 on: July 31, 2020, 06:14:34 PM »
Craig, good to hear from you! I was just thinking the other day that it had been a while since I'd seen you post. I look forward to this next project!
Andy

Offline Craig DeShong

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #3 on: August 01, 2020, 09:25:03 PM »
Mike and Andy; thanks for commenting.

I'm still fiddling with the Witte; though at this point it appears to be a lost cause.

I have a bit of design to complete on this Otto Langen before I'm ready to commit to cutting metal.  Once the design is complete; and I'm nearly there; I like to go through the entire assembly process one final time on the computer- looking for interference, things that don't fit well, and other potential problems.  It's easier to correct the design than make new parts down the road!

The build will probably start shortly.. in a week or two.
Craig

Offline Johnmcc69

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #4 on: August 02, 2020, 01:22:01 AM »
 :ThumbsUp:
 Great background write up!

 I look forward to following along on your journey.

  :popcorn:

 John

Offline Craig DeShong

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #5 on: August 03, 2020, 12:26:21 AM »
Mike, Andy, and John; thanks for showing interest in this project.  Itís going to be a interesting built.  Iím thinking that after building two Otto Langen Models, this one ought to be pretty straight-forwardÖ but as soon as I say that Iíll jinx the project for sure so Iím not saying it (ooooops looks like I just did!).

The design is all but finished.  This model will be a tad under two feet in height when complete; so it will be of the size of my fluted column, first generation model.  That makes it a larger model that the 2nd generation Crossley I built which is at 1/6th size.  The actual scale of this model is .22 inches to the full size inch; or a bit over 1/5th size. 

The scale was pretty much dictated by the flywheel casing I could find that would finish out to an Otto & Langen looking flywheel.   I have the flywheel at hand, as well as a two inch diameter honed steel cylinder tube to supply the model with a consistent diameter  bore.  I bored and honed the cylinder of my 1st generation Otto Langen myself and it was a chore to get a consistent bore.  Kirk kindly supplied me with a honed cylinder for the Crossley 2nd generation and it made getting a consistent bore a non-issue.  Iíve learned my lesson and searched out a honed cylinder for this model also.

I still have a few odds-and-ends to address before I start cutting metal but commencing the build is not far away.

Iíve attached several elevation renderings of the final assembly from my Alibre design tool so you can get an idea of what this model will look like when complete.
Craig

Offline Craig DeShong

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #6 on: August 06, 2020, 06:50:52 PM »
Mike; Iíve always found that discovering the history of the engines I model is part of the process.  I also like to take my models to shows where spectators almost always comment and I like to have some background information for those that are curious regarding the full size engine Iíve modeled as I feel that is part of the story.
 
Construction of the model started today.  Iím going to make the base and column and then fit the honed cylinder.

Here Iíve just mounted a 5 Ĺ inch round piece of aluminum to my lathe to begin the work on the base.


The first order of business is to square things up and then begin forming the base flange.



Iíll finish the flange later.  Here Iím boring the center in preparation for pressing in the cylinder liner.  These large presses are challenging because with such a large diameter the resistance fit can only be one half to one thousandth of an inch.  I thought Iíd error on the large side, figuring I could always smear a little JB weld on the joint if it was a sloppy fit, but I managed to hit my measurement of 2.245 inch diameter right on the nose. 



Once again Iím making mountains of aluminum swarf; time to empty the trash bin.

Craig

Offline awake

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #7 on: August 06, 2020, 08:04:30 PM »
Nicely done!

For a press fit like that, do you ever use heat / cooling? I find that just a heat gun from HF on the outside part, and the freezer for the inside part, allows for quite a bit of additional interference.
Andy

Offline Craig DeShong

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #8 on: August 07, 2020, 07:46:41 PM »
Andy, thanks for the interest and question.   The short answer is; no.

My mentor was an extraordinary machinist; but he was very ďold schoolĒ.  His opinion was that if you made it right it would fit together properly.
 
I vividly remember my introduction to a metal lathe.  I wanted to build a live steam locomotive so I knew I would need to be some kind of machinist to do that.  Iíd never seen a metal lathe (or mill for that matter) but he and I took a trip up to a used machinery retailer near Lake Erie.  He selected the best-of-the-lot 9 inch south bend lathe in inventory and we brought it back to North Carolina and installed it in my shop.  The lathe did not come with any tooling, but with my mentors help I purchased the basics, along with a three jaw chuck and a cast iron mounting plate that fit the south bend head stock but needed machining to adapt the 3-jaw chuck.

My mentor gave me a basic lecture on how to run the lathe, grind tooling, and how to turn metal.  He then departed and left me the task of adapting the 3-jaw chuck to the mounting plate.  This was my first experience with turning metal.  I got the job done, and I did it amazingly well, especially for a raw novice.  To this day I wonder how???

So; my training has been, ďIf you do it right it will fitĒí and it seems to be a good lesson to learn in my 20 plus years of metal work.  Iím not saying that your suggestion doesnít have merit; it probably does, but I just never think of things like that.  It wasnít how I was trained.

On to the Otto Langen. 

I finished the base today.  Actually I need to drill one more hole, the passageway into the cylinder; but I need to install the cylinder liner before I can do that.

In this photo Iíve turned the work piece around in the lathe and am boring out a recess in which the cylinder ďheadĒ (a flat piece of aluminum) will mount.



Now I have the piece on the mill and am drilling the various required holes. 



I wanted to drill the mounting holes before I formed the bottom flange of this part.  Drilling them first made the drilling part a lot easier than having to drill the recesses on an angles surface.  Here Iím forming the flange, used to mount the engine to its working surface.


Now, back on the mill to cut out and drill the recess for the valve assembly.


For now, this piece is complete.  Next I'll start on the column.
Craig

Offline Craig DeShong

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #9 on: August 08, 2020, 10:39:18 PM »
Thanks for stopping by to see the latest.

I began work on the column today.  I must admit that the thought of chucking this 5 Ĺ inch diameter 11 inch long chunk of aluminum in the lathe gave me a moment of anxiety.  The perilous moment passed quickly, once I had a center established.  The center drill, once it dug-in, pretty much stabilized the piece at the tailstock end of the lathe.

Too bad I couldnít find a piece of aluminum that was already cored through the center; it would have made this job a bit easier.  Iím going to need to bore away a lot of material.  The bore goes completely through the eleven inch length, so I thought using my steady rest might be a good idea.  Not so much to keep the piece ďtrueĒ but to eliminate a catastrophe, where the boring bar would pull the piece off center enough to pull it out of the chuck.  My steady rest isnít large enough to accommodate the diameter I need.  Fortunately I bought this piece an inch too long, so I can turn down a relief on the tailstock end small enough to ride in the steady rest.  Once I get the piece bored I can cut off this relief.

Here Iím forming said relief.


With the steady rest in place Iím drilling out the center large enough to accommodate my boring bar.



Here Iíve turned the piece around and am just doing some surfacing work, trying to get this piece of aluminum round and true to the centers Iíve established on both ends.


Tomorrow Iíll begin boring out the center.  Iíll be removing a lot of material with the finished diameter of the bore being nearly 2 Ĺ inches in diameter.
Craig

Offline crueby

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #10 on: August 08, 2020, 11:32:52 PM »
Great start, I'll be following along.   :popcorn: :popcorn: :popcorn:

Offline kvom

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #11 on: August 09, 2020, 02:42:30 PM »
Good thing the steady wasn't any smaller.   8)

Offline Brian Rupnow

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #12 on: August 10, 2020, 12:05:51 AM »
Nice trick with the steady rest. When I made the "boiler" for the Stephenson's Rocket I was faced with a similar problem---My steady rest wasn't big enough. The "boiler" was only 6" long though, so I used a live center to support the outboard end while I machined it.

Offline Craig DeShong

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #13 on: August 12, 2020, 08:39:19 PM »
Kirk, Brian, and Chris; thanks for your comments.  Thanks also for those of you who just stop by to see the goings-on.

Iíll tell you; boring  a 2 Ĺ inch hole through all nine inches of this aluminum cylinder was more fun than Iíve had in years (and if you believe that for a second, I have some swamp land in Florida that Iíll sell you for a condominium project.)

Not much to say about it, other than it took a while and Iím not eager to do it again soon.  Fortunately, the diameter of the bore wasnít critical; I just needed a hole for the sleeve to pass through.  I needed to bore from both sides or I would have needed to upgrade my set of boring bars for increased rigidity.  I also needed to make a holding fixture to support the cylinder out on the lathe tailstock end (to hold the cylinder with the steady rest).

Just a few photos from the process.





Iím not finished with this cylinder yet.  I still need to form the external taper down the nine inch length (a taper attachment on the lathe would be ideal for this, and Grizzly does make one for my lathe; but Iím thinking itís an expense I just donít need to make). 

I also need to drill a few holes.

All that is next on the agenda.
Craig

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Re: 3rd Generation Otto Langen
« Reply #14 on: August 12, 2020, 10:12:31 PM »
Hello Craig,

It always amazes me how they get all that swarf into the bar in the first place. :ROFL:

That's a mighty long and thin boring bar. How did you control tool chatter? What sort of feeds and speeds did you use. Did you have to change these as the centre hole gets bigger to stay on that 'sweet spot'.

Mike
It is the journey that matters, not the destination